Measels

DESCRIPTION
Measles vaccine is a live, attenuated viral vaccine. Each dose of 0.5 ml contains CCID50 (cell culture infective doses 50%) of viral vaccine strain, prepared in diploid cell ( MRC5), chick embryo fibroblast)). This vaccine is a freeze-dried product that must be reconstituted only with the sterile diluent provided separately for that purpose.

COMPOSITION
Measles
Nature / amount of excipient
Nature / amount of stabilizer
Nature and amount of residual antibiotic
Diluent composition Dose 0.5 ml

ADMINISTRATION
Measles vaccine is generally injected subcutaneously. The preferred site of injection is the upper arm. The lyophilizate must be reconstituted by adding the entire content of the supplied container of diluent to the vaccine vial. The vaccine pellet should be completely dissolved in the diluent. Following reconstitution, the vaccine should be inspected visually for any foreign particulate matter prior to administration. If observed, the vaccine must be discarded.

A sterile needle and sterile syringe must be used for the reconstitution of the vaccine and for each injection. Because of sensitivity to ultraviolet light the vaccine must be stored in the dark at +2°C and +8°C and used within six (6) hours. Any opened vials remaining at the end of an immunization session (within six [6] hours of reconstitution) should be discarded. The vaccine vial monitor for this type of vaccine is attached to the vial cap and should be discarded when the vaccine is being reconstituted.

The diluent supplied is specially designed for use with this vaccine. Only this diluent may be used to reconstitute the vaccine. Do not use diluents from other types of vaccine or for measles vaccine from other manufacturers. Using an incorrect diluent will result in damage to the vaccine and/or serious reactions to those receiving the vaccine. Diluent must not be frozen but must be cooled between +2°C and +8°C before used for reconstitution.

 

IMMUNIZATION SCHEDULE
In countries where the incidence and mortality from measles is high in the first year of life, the recommended age for vaccination against measles is at 9 months of age (270 days) or shortly after. In countries where infection occurs later in life (due to sustained high vaccination coverage), the age of vaccination can be moved to 12-15 months. It is recommended that all children have two (2) opportunities for measles immunization to reduce the number both of unvaccinated children and of those who are vaccinated but fail to respond to the vaccine (primary vaccination failures). Although generally administered at school entry (4-6 years of age), the second opportunity for measles immunization may be provided as early as one (1) month following the first dose through routine or supplemental immunization activities. Measles vaccine can be given safely and effectively simultaneously with DTP, Td, TT, BCG, polio (OPV and IPV), Haemophilus influenzae type b, hepatitis B, or yellow fever vaccines or vitamin A supplementation.

 

SIDE EFFECTS
Side effects following measles vaccination, alone or in fixed combinations, are generally mild and transient. Slight pain and tenderness at the site of injection may occur within 24 hours of vaccination, sometimes followed by mild fever and local lymphadenopathy. About 7 - 12 days after vaccination up to 5% of measles vaccine recipients may experience fever > 39.4 °C for 1 - 2 days. A transient rash may occur in approximately 2% of vaccinees, usually starting 7-10 days following vaccination and lasting 2 days. Side effects, with the exception of anaphylactic reactions, are less likely to occur after receipt of a second dose of measles-containing vaccine. Encephalitis has been reported following measles vaccination at a frequency of approximately one (1) case per one (1) million doses administered although a causal link is not proven.

 

CONTRAINDICATIONS
There are few contraindications to the administration of measles vaccine. It is particularly important to immunize children with malnutrition. Persons with a history of an anaphylactic reaction to any component of the vaccine should not be vaccinated. Low grade fever, mild respiratory infections or diarrhoea, and other minor illnesses should not be considered as contraindications. Egg allergy is not considered to be a contraindication to vaccination. On theoretical grounds measles vaccine should also be avoided in pregnancy.

Immune deficiency

Children with known or suspected HIV infection are at increased risk of severe measles and should be offered measles vaccine as early as possible. The standard WHO recommendation for children at high risk of contracting measles is to immunize with measles vaccine at six (6) months of age, followed by an extra dose at nine (9) months. Measles vaccine is contraindicated in persons who are severely immunocompromised as a result of a congenital immune disorder, HIV infection, advanced leukaemia or lymphoma, serious malignant disease, or treatment with high-dose steroids, alkylating agents or anti-metabolites, or in persons who are receiving immunosuppressive therapeutic radiation.

 

STORAGE
Freeze-dried measles vaccine should be kept in the refrigerator between +2°C and +8°C until used. The vials of vaccine and the diluent should be transported together, but the diluent must not be frozen. Because of sensitivity to ultraviolet light the vaccine must be stored in the dark

Freeze-dried measles vaccine should also be kept frozen at -200C

PRESENTATION
The vaccine comes in vials.